Securing Node Capture Attacks for Hierarchical Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks(2012)

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Serious security threat is originated by node capture attacks in hierarchical data aggregation where a hacker achieves full control over a sensor node through direct physical access in wireless sensor networks. It makes a high risk of data confidentiality. In this study, we propose a securing node capture attacks for hierarchical data aggregation in wireless sensor networks. Initially network is separated into number of clusters, each cluster is headed by an aggregator and the aggregators are directly connected to sink. The aggregator upon identifying the detecting nodes selects a set of nodes randomly and broadcast a unique value which contains their authentication keys, to the selected set of nodes in first round of data aggregation. When any node within the group needs to transfer the data, it transfers slices of data to other nodes in that group, encrypted by individual authentication keys. Each receiving node decrypts, sums up the slices and transfers the encrypted data to the aggregator. The aggregator aggregates and encrypts the data with the shared secret key of the sink and forwards it to the sink. The set of nodes is reselected with new set of authentication keys in the second round of aggregation. By simulation results, we demonstrate that the proposed technique resolves the security threat of node capture attacks.

Existing System

In Existing System, the aggregate data to be transmitted via sensor nodes, a security threat is originate by any node. So, that time hacker achieves full control over a sensor node through direct physical path in wireless sensor network. It makes to data loss and risk of data confidentially.


1.      Sensor nodes are exposed to maximum failures.

2.      Sensor nodes which make use of the broadcast communication pattern and have severe bandwidth restraint.

3.      Sensor nodes have inadequate amount of resources.

Proposed System

In Proposed System, to avoid data loss initially network is separated into different clusters each cluster is headed by an aggregator and directed connected to sink. So, this idea basically dispersed data processing measures to save the energy and minimize the medium access layer contention in wireless sensor networks.

It proposed the distinct Structure and Density Independent Group Based Key Management Protocol (DGKE). The protocol offers:

1.      A better secure communication,

2.      Secure data aggregation,

3.      Confidentiality and

4.      Resilience against node capture and

5.      Replication attacks using reduced resources. 


1.      Wireless Sensor Network

2.      Hierarchical secure data aggregation

3.      Node capture attacks

4.      Slicing technique and Performance Metrics

5.      Simulation Result

Wireless Sensor Network

In this module, Sensor networks consist of numerous low cost, little devices and are in nature self organizing ad hoc systems. The job of the sensor network is to monitor the physical environment, gather and transmit the information to other sink nodes. Generally, radio transmission ranges for the sensor networks are in the orders of the magnitude that is lesser that of the geographical scope of the unbroken network. Hence, the transmission of data is done from hop-by-hop to the sink in a multi-hop manner. Reducing the amount of data to be relayed thereby reduces the consumption of energy in the network.

Hierarchical secure data aggregation

In this module, combine the data from different sources, redirect it with the removal of the redundancy and thereby reducing the number of transmissions and also saves energy. The inbuilt redundancy in the raw data gathered from various sensors can be banned by the in-network data aggregation.

Two security in the data aggregation of WSN

Data Confidentiality: In particular, the fundamental security issue is the data privacy that protects the transmitted data which is sensitive from passive attacks like eavesdropping. The significance of the data confidentiality is in the hostile environment, where the wireless channel is more prone to eavesdropping. Though cryptography provides plenty of methods, such as the process related to complicated encryption and decryption, like modular multiplication of large numbers in public key based on cryptosystems, utilizes the sensor’s power speedily.

Data Integrity: It avoids the modification of the last aggregation value by the negotiating source nodes or aggregator nodes. Sensor nodes can be without difficulty compromised because of the lack of the expensive tampering-resistant hardware. The otherwise hardware that has been used may not be reliable at times. A compromised message is able to modify, forge and discard the messages.

Node capture attacks

In this module, the process of getting hold of the sensor node through a physical attack is termed as node capture attack. For example: uncovering the sensor and adding wires in any place. This attack essentially differs from getting hold of a sensor via certain software bug. Since sensors are typically supposed to operate the same software, specifically, the operating software which discovers the suitable bug permits the adversary to manage the entire sensor network. Distinctly, the node capture attacks can be set over a small segment of adequately large network.

There are two types of node captures possible:

§   Random node capture

§   Selective node capture

Slicing technique and Performance Metrics

The performance of Securing Node Capture Attacks for Hierarchical Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks (SNCAHDA) protocol is compared with our previous work Secure Authentication Technique for Data Aggregation (SATDA) protocol. The performance is evaluated mainly, according to the following metrics.

1.    Average end-to-end delay

2.    Average Packet Delivery Ratio

3.    Average Energy

4.    Average Packet Loss

5.    Throughput

Simulation Results

In this module, the simulation, the channel capacity of mobile hosts is set to the same value: 2 Mbps. The distributed coordination function (DCF) of IEEE 802.11 is used for wireless LANs as the MAC layer protocol. The simulated traffic is CBR with UDP source and sink. The number of sources is fixed as 4 around a phenomenon.

System Requirements:

Hardware Requirements:

•         System                        : Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.

•         Hard Disk        : 40 GB.

•         Floppy Drive   : 1.44 Mb.

•         Monitor           : 15 VGA Colour.

•         Mouse             : Logitech.

•         Ram                 : 512 Mb.

Software Requirements:

•         Operating system        : - Windows XP.

•         Coding Language       : C#.Net

•         Back End                    : Sql Server 2005

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