RandomCast: An Energy Efficient Communication Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks(2009)

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In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), every node overhears every data transmission occurring in its vicinity and thus, consumes energy unnecessarily. However, since some MANET routing protocols such as Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) collect route information via overhearing, they would suffer if they are used in combination with 802.11 PSM. Allowing no overhearing may critically deteriorate the performance of the underlying routing protocol, while unconditional overhearing may offset the advantage of using PSM.

Algorithm / Technique used:

Random Cast Algorithm.

Algorithm Description:

RandomCast is significant when traffic is light. This is because nodes stay in low-power sleep state more intelligently in RandomCast. It consumes less energy at high traffic condition as well, but the benefit in this case comes from less Rx energy. This is credited to more judicious overhearing decisions than other schemes.

Existing System:

Mobile ad-hoc networking involves peer-to-peer communication in a network with a dynamically changing topology. Achieving energy efficient communication in such a network is more challenging than in cellular networks since there is no centralized arbiter such as a base station that can administer power management. We evaluate a power control loop, similar to those commonly found in cellular networks, for ad-hoc wireless networks. A major focus of research in ad-hoc wireless networking is to reduce energy consumption because the wireless devices are envisioned to have small batteries and be incapable of energy scavenging. We show that this power control loop reduces energy consumption per transmitted.

Proposed System:

Proposes a new communication mechanism, called RandomCast, via which a sender can specify the desired level of overhearing, making a prudent balance between energy and routing performance. In addition, it reduces redundant rebroadcasts for a broadcast packet, and thus, saves more energy. RandomCast is highly energy-efficient compared to conventional 802.11 as well as 802.11 PSM-based schemes, in terms of total energy consumption, energy good-put, and energy balance.


1. Networking Module.

2. Packet Division Module.

3. Random Cast Module.

4. Energy Efficient Balancing Module.

5. Graphical module.

Module Description:

1. Networking Module.

Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters, called clients. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. A server machine is a high-performance host that is running one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. A client also shares any of its resources; Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests.

2. Packet Division Module.

Division disappears even in ODPM in a mobile scenario. However, Random Cast still exhibits a better balance than ODPM. In ODPM, some nodes consume an extremely small amount of energy, which is not observed in RandomCast and 802.11 PSM. This is because ODPM uses a smaller ATIM window size (0.02 second in 0.4 second beacon interval or 5 percent) than RandomCast (0.05 second in 0.25 second beacon interval or 20 percent) as discussed in Section 4.1. If they use the same ATIM window and beacon interval, the performance superiority of RandomCast over ODPM will be even more significant

3. Random Cast Module.

A message overhearing and forwarding mechanism, called Random-Cast, this makes a judicious balance between energy and network performance. In RandomCast, a node may decide not to overhear (a unicast message) and not to forward (a broadcast message) when it receives an advertisement during an ATIM window, thereby reducing the energy cost without deteriorating the network performance.

4. Energy Efficient Balancing Module.

RandomCast 802.11 is unmodified IEEE 802.11 without PSM, ODPM [32] is one of the most competitive energy-efficient schemes developed for  multihop networks. For ODPM, a node remains in AM for 5 seconds if it receives an RREP (RREP time-out). It remains in AM for 2 seconds if it receives a data packet or it is a source or a destination node (Data time-out).

5. Graphical module.

Graphical models are a tie between probability theory and graph theory. They dealing with two problems that occur throughout applied mathematics and engineering -- uncertainty and complexity -- and in particular they are playing an increasingly important role in the design and analysis of machine learning algorithms. Fundamental to the idea of a graphical model is the notion of modularity -- a complex system is built by combining simpler parts. Probability theory provides the glue whereby the parts are combined, ensuring that the system as a whole is consistent, and providing ways to interface models to data. In our project we are evaluating the the energy efficiency through graph by energy level vs node that the information get passed through the router. This gives the server about the current status about the network.

Hardware Requirements:

•         System                : Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.

•         Hard Disk            : 40 GB.

•         Floppy Drive        : 1.44 Mb.

•         Monitor                 : 15 VGA Colour.

•         Mouse                  : Logitech.

•         Ram                     : 256 Mb.

Software Requirements:

•         Operating system         : Windows XP Professional.

•         Front End                       :  Visual Studio.Net 2005

•         Coding Language        : Visual C# .Net.

Click here to download RandomCast: An Energy Efficient Communication Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks(2009) source code