The global network of data centers is emerging as an important distributed systems paradigm—commodity clusters running high-performance applications, connected by high-speed “lambda” networks across hundreds of milliseconds of network latency. Packet loss on long-haul networks can cripple applications and protocols: A loss rate as low as 0.1% is sufficient to reduce TCP/IP throughput by an order o magnitude on a 1-Gb/s link with 50-ms one-way latency. Maelstrom is an edge appliance that masks packet loss transparently and quickly from intercluster protocols, aggregating traffic for high-speed encoding and using a new forward error correction scheme to handle bursty loss.
In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes their message in a redundant way by using an error-correcting code (ECC).
TCP/IP has three major problems when used over such networks.
1. First, TCP/IP suffers throughput collapse if the network is even slightly prone to packet loss.
2. Second, real-time or interactive applications are impacted by the reliance of reliability mechanisms on acknowledgments and retransmissions, limiting the latency of packet recovery to at least the round-trip time (RTT) of the link.
3. Third, TCP/IP requires massive buffers at the communicating end-hosts to fully exploit the bandwidth of a long-distance high-speed link, even in the absence of packet loss
· Forward error correction (FEC) is a promising solution for reliability over long-haul links.
· Packet recovery latency is independent of the RTT of the link. While FEC codes have been used for decades within link-level hardware solutions, faster commodity processors have enabled packet-level FEC at end hosts.
· End-to-end FEC is very attractive for communication between data centers: It is inexpensive, easy to deploy and customize, and does not require specialized equipment in the network linking the data centers.
1. Sender Module:
Secret key Authentication
The sender give the secret key to the trusted center, then the TC will verify the secret and authenticate to the corresponding sender and get the session key from TC or else TC not allow the user transmission
The message is encrypted by the received session key and appends the qubit with that encrypted message, then transmit the whole information to the corresponding receiver.
2. Trusted Center:
Secret Key Verification
Verify the secret key received from the user and authenticate the corresponding user for secure transmission.
Session Key Generation
It is shared secret key which is used to for encryption and decryption. The size of session key is 8 bits. This session key is generated from pseudo random prime number and exponential value of random number
Quantum Key Generation
3. Receiver Module:
Secret key Authentication
Forward error correction (FEC) is a promising solution for reliability over long-haul links. Packet recovery latency is independent of the RTT of the link. While FEC codes have been used for decades within link-level hardware solutions, faste commodity processors have enabled packet-level FEC at end hosts.
Hardware and Software Requirements:
Language : C#.NET
Technologies : Microsoft.NET Framework
IDE : Visual Studio 2008
Operating System : Microsoft Windows XP SP2 or Later Version
Processor : Intel Pentium or more
RAM : 512 MB (Minimum)
Hard Disk : 40 GB
Maelstrom: Transparent Error Correction for Communication Between Data Centers(2011)