Efficient Broadcasting with Guaranteed Coverage in MANETs(2011)

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ABSTRACT:

The hide a message, open a bitmap file, then enter a password or select a key file. The key file can be any file, another bitmap for example. This password or key will be treated as a stream of bytes specifying the space between two changed pixels. I don't recommend text files, because they may result in a quite regular noise pattern. The longer your key file or password is, the less regular the noise will appear.

Next step, enter the secret message or choose a file, and click the Hide button. The application writes the length of the message in bytes into the first pixel. After that it reads a byte from the message, reads another byte from the key, and calculates the coordinates of the pixel to use for the message-byte. It increments or resets the color component index, to switch between the R, G and B component. Then it replaces the R, G or B component of the pixel (according to the color component index) with the message-byte, and repeats the procedure with the next byte of the message. At last, the new bitmap is displayed. Save the bitmap by clicking the Save button. If the grayscale flag is set, all components of the color are changed. Grayscale noise is less visible in most images.

To extract a hidden message from a bitmap, open the bitmap file and specify the password or key you used when hiding the message. Then choose a file to store the extracted message in (or leave the field blank, if you only want to view hidden Unicode text), and click the Extract button. The application steps through the pattern specified by the key and extracts the bytes from the pixels. At last, it stores the extracted stream in the file and tries to display the message. Don't bother about the character chaos, if your message is not a Unicode text. The data in the file will be all right. This works with every kind of data, you can even hide a small bitmap inside a larger bitmap. If you are really paranoid, you can encrypt your files with PGP or GnuPG before hiding them in bitmaps.

Project Introduction

BROADCASTING a packet to the entire network is a basic operation and has extensive applications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). For example, broadcasting is used in the route discovery process in several routing protocols, when advising an error message to erase invalid routes from the routing table, or as an efficient mechanism for reliable multicast in a fast-moving MANET. In MANETs with the promiscuous receiving mode, the traditional blind flooding incurs significant redundancy, collision, and contention, which is known as the broadcast storm problem. Efficient broadcasting in a MANET focuses on selecting a small forward node set while ensuring broadcast coverage.

Overview

The hide a message, open a bitmap file, then enter a password or select a key file. The key file can be any file, another bitmap for example. This password or key will be treated as a stream of bytes specifying the space between two changed pixels. I don't recommend text files, because they may result in a quite regular noise pattern. The longer your key file or password is, the less regular the noise will appear.

Next step, enter the secret message or choose a file, and click the Hide button. The application writes the length of the message in bytes into the first pixel. After that it reads a byte from the message, reads another byte from the key, and calculates the coordinates of the pixel to use for the message-byte. It increments or resets the color component index, to switch between the R, G and B component. Then it replaces the R, G or B component of the pixel (according to the color component index) with the message-byte, and repeats the procedure with the next byte of the message. At last, the new bitmap is displayed. Save the bitmap by clicking the Save button. If the grayscale flag is set, all components of the color are changed. Grayscale noise is less visible in most images.

To extract a hidden message from a bitmap, open the bitmap file and specify the password or key you used when hiding the message. Then choose a file to store the extracted message in (or leave the field blank, if you only want to view hidden Unicode text), and click the Extract button. The application steps through the pattern specified by the key and extracts the bytes from the pixels. At last, it stores the extracted stream in the file and tries to display the message. Don't bother about the character chaos, if your message is not a Unicode text. The data in the file will be all right. This works with every kind of data, you can even hide a small bitmap inside a larger bitmap. If you are really paranoid, you can encrypt your files with PGP or GnuPG before hiding them in bitmaps.

Existing System

The hide a message, open a bitmap file, then enter a password or select a key file. The key file can be any file, another bitmap for example. This password or key will be treated as a stream of bytes specifying the space between two changed pixels. I don't recommend text files, because they may result in a quite regular noise pattern. The longer your key file or password is, the less regular the noise will appear.

Next step, enter the secret message or choose a file, and click the Hide button. The application writes the length of the message in bytes into the first pixel. After that it reads a byte from the message, reads another byte from the key, and calculates the coordinates of the pixel to use for the message-byte. It increments or resets the color component index, to switch between the R, G and B component. Then it replaces the R, G or B component of the pixel (according to the color component index) with the message-byte, and repeats the procedure with the next byte of the message

Proposed System

The hide a message, open a bitmap file, then enter a password or select a key file. The key file can be any file, another bitmap for example. This password or key will be treated as a stream of bytes specifying the space between two changed pixels. I don't recommend text files, because they may result in a quite regular noise pattern. The longer your key file or password is, the less regular the noise will appear.

Next step, enter the secret message or choose a file, and click the Hide button. The application writes the length of the message in bytes into the first pixel. After that it reads a byte from the message, reads another byte from the key, and calculates the coordinates of the pixel to use for the message-byte. It increments or resets the color component index, to switch between the R, G and B component. Then it replaces the R, G or B component of the pixel (according to the color component index) with the message-byte, and repeats the procedure with the next byte of the message. At last, the new bitmap is displayed. Save the bitmap by clicking the Save button. If the grayscale flag is set, all components of the color are changed. Grayscale noise is less visible in most images.

To extract a hidden message from a bitmap, open the bitmap file and specify the password or key you used when hiding the message. Then choose a file to store the extracted message in (or leave the field blank, if you only want to view hidden Unicode text), and click the Extract button. The application steps through the pattern specified by the key and extracts the bytes from the pixels. At last, it stores the extracted stream in the file and tries to display the message. Don't bother about the character chaos, if your message is not a Unicode text. The data in the file will be all right. This works with every kind of data, you can even hide a small bitmap inside a larger bitmap. If you are really paranoid, you can encrypt your files with PGP or GnuPG before hiding them in bitmaps.

Modules and its Description:

This project contains 3 modules. They are:

1.    Node addition and Mobility Creation

2.    Single and Dual neighbor set routing

3.    Comparison routing

Module Description:

1.    Node addition and Mobility Creation

The simulated model creates the cellular region and According to the Node count the nodes are placed in the cellular region for proposed system study. The static neighbor set algorithm is invoked by selecting the source and destination.

2.      Single and Dual neighbor set routing

Each node determines its forwarding status based on its local single neighbor set information. Based on next single neighbor set information is forwarded to link the virtual network based on link availability. The directed graph is designed to model this network and nodes in the directed graph represents mobile node and vertex of graph represents the connectivity established between nodes. So to implement the algorithm in program point of view Directed graph concept is used.

Each node determines its forwarding status based on its local Dual neighbor set information. Based on next two different neighbor set information is forwarded to link the virtual network based on link availability. The same concept above mentioned is called with this input. Result is displayed in the adjacent frame.

3.     Comparison routing

The result of the above mentioned algorithm is compared in the following three properties

Link

Connectivity

And Availability

The separate class is written that invokes the two methods and compares the properties. The efficiency ratio is displayed to the user. The efficiency of the delivery is found to be 99% in this simulated mobile adhoc network.

Software/ Hardware Requirements

Hardware specifications:

Processor                       :           Pentium IV 2.4GHZ

RAM                                :           512 MB

Hard disk                                    :           40 GB

Software Specification

• Operating system     : Windows XP Professional

• Technology               : Microsoft Visual Studio .Net 2008

• Coding Language   : VB.Net

Click here to download Efficient Broadcasting with Guaranteed Coverage in MANETs(2011) source code